Evaluación del perfil de ácidos grasos de Isochrysis galbana mediante el uso de métodos ácidos y alcalinos de transesterificación

Palabras clave: lípidos, ácidos grasos, ácido docosahexaeoico, ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, ingredientes funcionales, antioxidantes

Resumen

Isochrysis galbana es una microalga marina destacada por contener una gran diversidad de biomoléculas de interés antioxidante. Su alto contenido en lípidos permite su uso en acuicultura o como fuente de biocombustible, por su perfil de ácidos grasos rico en poliinsaturados como Ácido Docosahexaenoico (DHA) o por su alto contenido en fucoxantina (carotenoide). Desde hace un siglo esta microalga es conocida como alimento para bivalvos, larvas de peces y/o moluscos. Por otra parte, la transesterificación es la reacción necesaria para poder derivatizar los ácidos grasos en Ácidos Grasos Metilados (AGM) y poder identificarlos y cuantificarlos; este es un paso clave para optimizar y conocer la mejora del perfil de ácidos grasos obtenido desde la biomasa de estudio. Por consiguiente, este trabajo presentó la diferencia significativa del perfil de ácidos grasos y contenido de los mismos de I. galbana a partir de 8 Métodos de Transesterificación Directa e Indirecta (MTD y MTI, respectivamente), además del uso de catalizadores ácidos y alcalinos (AC1, AC2 y AL1 y AL2). Los resultados arrojaron mejores contenidos de ácidos grasos metilados respecto a la biomasa seca en el método MTDAL1 con un ~6 % y de una abundancia relativa de DHA del ~12 % en el método MTI-AL2. Asimismo, el perfil de ácidos grasos más abundante presente en la microalga se destacó en MTD-AL2 con un 57,66 % en poliinsaturado. Por otro lado, la adición de un patrón interno en las experiencias llevadas a cabo, pudo identificar que los métodos MTD-AL1 y MTI-AC1 obtuvieron mayor eficiencia en la transesterificación con un ~93 % y ~87 %, respectivamente. Por consiguiente, el método que se seleccione para la lectura correcta de ácidos grasos presentes en cualquier biomasa es relevante para observar un perfil más rico en insaturaciones como se ha comprobado con la microalga I. galbana.

Biografía del autor/a

Elena Medina-Pérez, Universidad de Antofagasta
E. Medina, biotechnology student at Universidad de Antofagasta, Chile. She is currently developing her degree activity at “Laboratorio de Microencapsulación de Compuestos Bioactivos, LAMICBA”, at Food Science and Nutritional Department, in University of Antofagasta, Chile. Her research interest includes bioactives compounds from microalgae biomass for functional food producing in the food industry.
Maria Ruiz-Domínguez, Universidad de Antofagasta
M.C. Ruiz-Domínguez: received the BSc in Environmental Sciences in 2008, MSc-Degree in Experimental Techniques in Chemistry in 2010, and the PhD degree in 2013 from University of Huelva, Spain. She was working on isolation and characterization of extremophile microalgae from Atacama Desert under European project as postdoctoral position (2014-2016) in the University of Antofagasta, Chile. Currently, she is carrying out research about the extraction of bioactive compounds from natural sources using green technologies extraction for functional food production as researcher and academic at Food Science and Nutritional Department, in University of Antofagasta, Chile. There, she is the principal researcher of several projects from 2017.
Juan Morales-Espinoza, Universidad de Antofagasta
J. Morales, received the title of Engineer in Aquaculture in 2001 from the University of Antofagasta, Chile. He is working on the production of functional ingredients obtained by cultivation of microalgae since 2001. He has worked as professional and researcher since 2008 at “Departamento de Cs. Acuáticas y Ambientales” in University of Antofagasta, where he is the principal researcher of the Applied Phycology Prototyping Plant in this University. He worked as a researcher in private companies for 8 years.
Pedro Cerezal-Mezquita, Universidad de Antofagasta
P.Cerezal: received the MSC-Degree in Science and Food Technology in 1981, and the PhD degree in Technical Sciences (Mention in Food) in 1993 from Research Institute for the Food Industry, Havana, Cuba. Since 1999 he works as Associate Professor at the University of Antofagasta, and currently holds the position of Head of the Laboratory Microencapsulation of Bioactive Compounds (LAMICBA) from 2010, and since 2014 he is Titular Professor of the Department of Food Science and Nutrition of Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Antofagasta. Since 1999 until now, he is working on different lines of research, the main ones being: thermal treatments of canned products, solar drying of biological products; extraction and microencapsulation of bioactive compounds from natural products (fruits, vegetables and microalgae) and their incorporation into food matrices. Since 2011 he is Scientific Consultant of ILSI Sur-Andino.

Referencias

Arai, S. (1996). Studies on functional foods in Japan—state of the art. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 60(1), 9-15. https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.60.9

Aronson, J. K. (2017). Defining ‘nutraceuticals’: neither nutritious nor pharmaceutical. British journal of clinical pharmacology, 83(1), 8-19. https://doi.org/10.1111/bcp.12935

Axelsson, M.; Gentili, F. (2014). A single-step method for rapid extraction of total lipids from green microalgae. PloS one, 9(2), e89643. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089643

Chamola, R.; Khan, M. F.; Raj, A.; Verma, M.; Jain, S. (2019). Response surface methodology based optimization of in situ transesterification of dry algae with methanol, H2SO4 and NaOH. Fuel, 239, 511-520. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2018.11.038

Chen, J.-J.; Lee, Y.-R. (2018). Optimization of the transesterification reaction of microalgal Monoraphidium sp. Renewable Energy, 129, Part B, 717-723. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2017.06.012

Chisti, Y. (2007). Biodiesel from microalgae. Biotechnology advances, 25(3), 294-306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2007.02.001

D’Oca, M. G. M.; Viêgas, C. V.; Lemoes, J. S.; Miyasaki, E. K.; Morón-Villarreyes, J. A.; Primel, E. G.; Abreu, P. C. (2011). Production of AGMs from several microalgal lipidic extracts and direct transesterification of the Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Biomass and bioenergy, 35(4), 1533-1538. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2010.12.047

Fukuda, H.; Kondo, A.; Noda, H. (2001). Biodiesel fuel production by transesterification of oils. Journal of bioscience and bioengineering, 92(5), 405-416. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1389-1723(01)80288-7

González, A. R.; Gallego, E. G. (2011). Variables de operación en el proceso de transesterificación de grasas animales: una revisión. Ingeniería y Universidad, 15(1), 197-218. Recuperado de https://revistas.javeriana.edu.co/index.php/iyu/article/view/1143

Guedes, A. C.; Amaro, H. M.; Malcata, F. X. (2011). Microalgae as sources of high addedvalue compounds—a brief review of recent work. Biotechnology progress, 27(3), 597-613. https://doi.org/10.1002/btpr.575

Kim, S. M.; Kang, S.-W.; Kwon, O.-N.; Chung, D.; Pan, C.-H. (2012). Fucoxanthin as a major carotenoid in Isochrysis aff. galbana: Characterization of extraction for commercial application. Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry, 55(4), 477-483. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13765-012-2108-3

Kuda, O.; Brezinova, M.; Rombaldova, M.; Slavikova, B.; Posta, M.; Beier, P.; Kopecky, J. (2016). Docosahexaenoic Acid–Derived Fatty Acid Esters of Hydroxy Fatty Acids (FAHFAs) With Antiinflammatory Properties. Diabetes, 65(9), 2580-2590. https://doi.org/10.2337/db16-0385

Lamers, P. P.; van de Laak, C. C.; Kaasenbrood, P. S.; Lorier, J.; Janssen, M.; De Vos, R. C.; Wijffels, R. H. (2010). Carotenoid and fatty acid metabolism in light-stressed Dunaliella salina. Biotechnology and bioengineering, 106(4), 638-648. https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.22725

Lemahieu, C.; Bruneel, C.; Ryckebosch, E.; Muylaert, K.; Buyse, J.; Foubert, I. (2015). Impact of different omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) sources (flaxseed, Isochrysis galbana, fish oil and DHA Gold) on n-3 LC-PUFA enrichment (efficiency) in the egg yolk. Journal of functional foods, 19, part B, 821-827. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2015.04.021

Mendes, A.; Reis, A.; Vasconcelos, R.; Guerra, P.; da Silva, T. L. (2009). Crypthecodinium cohnii with emphasis on DHA production: a review. Journal of applied phycology, 21(2), 199-214. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-008-9351-3

Mishra, N.; Mishra, N. (2018). Exploring the biologically active metabolites of Isochrysis galbana in pharmaceutical interest: an overview. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 9(6), 2162-2174.

Molina Grima, E.; Sánchez Pérez, J. A.; García Camacho, F.; Fernández Sevilla, J. M.; Acién Fernández, F. G. (1994). Effect of growth rate on the eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid content of Isochrysis galbana in chemostat culture. Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 41(1), 23-27. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00166076

Molino, A.; Larocca, V.; Di Sanzo, G.; Martino, M.; Casella, P.; Marino, T.; Musmarra, D. (2019). Extraction of Bioactive Compounds Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. Molecules, 24(4), 782. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040782

Narula, V.; Thakur, A.; Uniyal, A.; Kalra, S.; Jain, S. (2017). Process parameter optimization of low temperature transesterification of algae-Jatropha Curcas oil blend. Energy, 119, 983-988. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2016.11.043

Qi, B.; Beaudoin, F.; Fraser, T.; Stobart, A. K.; Napier, J. A.; Lazarus, C. M. (2002). Identification of a cDNA encoding a novel C18-Δ9 polyunsaturated fatty acid-specific elongating activity from the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-producing microalga, Isochrysis galbana. FEBS letters, 510(3), 159-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-5793(01)03247-1

Rahman, M.; Aziz, M.; Al-khulaidi, R. A.; Sakib, N.; Islam, M. (2017). Biodiesel production from microalgae Spirulina maxima by two step process: Optimization of process variable. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, 10(2), 140-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrras.2017.02.004

Santos-Sánchez, N.; Valadez-Blanco, R.; Hernández-Carlos, B.; Torres-Arino, A.; Guadarrama-Mendoza, P.; Salas-Coronado, R. (2016). Lipids rich in ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from microalgae. Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 100(20), 8667-8684. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-016-7818-8

Shahidi, F.; Ambigaipalan, P. (2018). Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and their health benefits. Annual review of food science and technology, 9, 345-381. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-food-111317-095850

Sheng, J.; Vannela, R.; Rittmann, B. E. (2011). Evaluation of methods to extract and quantify lipids from Synechocystis PCC 6803. Bioresource technology, 102(2), 1697-1703. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.08.007

Silitonga, A.; Masjuki, H.; Ong, H. C.; Mahlia, T.; Kusumo, F. (2017). Optimization of extraction of lipid from Isochrysis galbana microalgae species for biodiesel synthesis. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 39(11), 1167-1175.https://doi.org/10.1080/15567036.2017.1310957

Sprague, M.; Dick, J. R.; Tocher, D. R. (2016). Impact of sustainable feeds on omega-3 long-chain fatty acid levels in farmed Atlantic salmon, 2006–2015. Scientific Reports, 6, 21892. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep21892

Sung, M.; Han, J.-I. (2016). Alkaline in situ transesterification of Aurantiochytrium sp. KRS 101 using potassium carbonate. Bioresource technology, 205, 250-253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.12.089

Tang, S.; Qin, C.; Wang, H.; Li, S.; Tian, S. (2011). Study on supercritical extraction of lipids and enrichment of DHA from oil-rich microalgae. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 57(1), 44-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.supflu.2011.01.010

Velásquez-Orta, S.; Lee, J.; Harvey, A. (2012). Alkaline in situ transesterification of Chlorella vulgaris. Fuel, 94, 544-550. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2011.11.045

Xu, Y.; Qian, S. Y. (2014). Anti-cancer activities of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Biomedical journal, 37(3), 112-119.

Publicado
2019-04-12
Cómo citar
Medina-Pérez, E., Ruiz-Domínguez, M., Morales-Espinoza, J., & Cerezal-Mezquita, P. (2019). Evaluación del perfil de ácidos grasos de Isochrysis galbana mediante el uso de métodos ácidos y alcalinos de transesterificación. Informador Técnico, 83(1), 66-75. https://doi.org/10.23850/22565035.1574
Sección
Artículo de Investigación